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August 17, 2003

                             ET NEWS
================================================================
        NEWS AND INFORMATION FOR ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS
----------------------------------------------------------------
Issue No. 112          http://www.etnews.org           8-17-2003
================================================================

Contents
--------
- News
- ET Journal
- NICET Test Dates
- AFAA Class Schedule
- Comments & Acknowledgements

================================================================
NEWS
================================================================

6 YOUTHS USE FALSE FIRE ALARM TO LEAVE DETENTION CENTER
-------------------------------------------------------

This is a good example where presignal should be used!

Source: http://www.stjoenews-press.com/Main.asp?SectionID=81&Sub
SectionID=272&ArticleID=43858

----------------------------------------------------------------

The hard drive in my laptop failed for the 2nd time in 6 months.
The drive was covered under warranty but the data is not. After
the first failure I searched high and low for a backup program
and finally found one that works fairly well called Second Copy
2000. It automatically synchronizes data according to a schedule
that you create. I also use an application to save an image of my
primary drive data. Between the two programs I was able to
reconstruct most of my lost data on the new drive.

It's unfortunate that Micro$oft has intentionally crippled their
disk manager making it impossible to configure a RAID 1 disk-set
on a laptop.

----------------------------------------------------------------

I'll see you in Happyrock this week.

Have fun!

Mike
mailto:mbbaker@etnews.org

================================================================
ET JOURNAL
================================================================

NICET Fire Alarm Systems Level IV
38008 RADIANT ENERGY SENSING FIRE DETECTORS
-------------------------------------------

38008 is a Level IV Special work element.

38008 DESCRIPTION
Understand the theory of operation of flame detectors of the
infrared and ultraviolet principle of operation. Know the proper
and improper application of flame detectors, the way each type of
flame detector responds to a fire, and the methods used by
testing laboratories to determine the suitability of a flame
detector for listing. (NFPA 72, Fire Protection Handbook)

38008 REFERENCES
NFPA 72
http://www.etnews.org/index.php?s=461&bid=5

Fire Protection Handbook
http://www.etnews.org/index.php?s=461&bid=7

38007 DESCRIPTION BREAKDOWN
"Understand the theory of operation of flame detectors of the
infrared and ultraviolet principle of operation. Know the proper
and improper application of flame detectors, the way each type of
flame detector responds to a fire, and the methods used by
testing laboratories to determine the suitability of a flame
detector for listing."

Glossary of terms

Fire Protection Handbook Section 5 Chapter 2
A Flame Detector responds either to radiant energy visible to the
human eye (approximately 4000 to 7700 angstroms) or outside the
range of human vision.

An infrared (IR) detector basically is composed of a filter and
lens system used to screen out unwanted wavelengths and focus the
incoming energy on a photovoltaic or photoresistive cell
sensitive to infrared energy. IR flame detectors can respond to
the total IR component of the flame alone or in combination with
flame flicker in the frequency range of 5 to 30 Hz.

A major problem in the use of infrared detectors receiving total
IR radiation is the possible interference of solar radiation in
the infrared region. When detectors are located in places
shielded from the sun, such as vaults, filtering or shielding the
unit from the sun’s rays is unnecessary.

IR detectors are sensitive to most hydrocarbon fires (liquids,
gases, and solids). Fires, such as burning metals, ammonia,
hydrogen, and sulfur, do not emit significant amounts of IR
radiation in the 4.4 micron sensitivity range of the detector.
Thorough testing must be carried out prior to applying IR
detectors to a non-hydrogen-fueled fire application.

A buildup of ice or water film on the detector viewing window
will greatly reduce its sensitivity. IR detectors are less
affected by smoke, oil, and certain gases and vapors than UV
detectors. 

Ultraviolet (UV) detectors generally use either a solid-state
device, such as silicone carbide or aluminum nitride, or a gas-
filled tube as the sensing element. UV detectors are essentially
insensitive to both sunlight and artificial light.

A UV Flame Detector detects radiation emitted in the 1850 to
2450 angstrom range. Virtually all flames emit radiation in this
band, while the sun’s radiation at this band is absorbed by the
Earth’s atmosphere. The result is that the UV flame detector is
solar blind, meaning it will not cause an alarm in response to
radiation from the sun. The implication of this feature is that
it can easily be used both indoors and outdoors.

UV detectors are sensitive to most fires, including hydrocarbon
(liquids, gases, and solids), metals (e.g., magnesium), sulfur,
hydrogen, hydrazine, and ammonia.

Arc welding, electric arcs, lightning, X-rays, used in
nondestructive metal testing equipment, and radioactive materials
can produce radiation levels that will activate a UV detection
system.

The presence of UV-absorbing gases and vapors will attenuate the
UV radiation from a fire, adversely affecting the ability of the
detector to "see" a flame. Likewise, the presence of an oil mist
in the air or an oil film on the detector window will have the
same effect.

NFPA 72-1999 A-2-4.3.1.1 All optical detectors respond according
to the following theoretical equation:
S = kpezd
    -----
     d2

S = Radiant energy reaching the detector
k = Proportionality constant for the detector
p = Radiant power emitted by the fire
e = Naperian (natural) logarithm base (2.7183)
z = Extinction coefficient of air
d = Distance between the fire and the detector

The sensitivity (S) typically is measured in nanowatts. This
equation yields a family of curves similar to the one shown in
Figure A-2-4.3.1.1.

The curve defines the maximum distance at which the detector
consistently detects a fire of defined size and fuel. Detectors
should be employed only in the shaded are above the curve.

Under the best of conditions, with no atmospheric absorption,
the radiant power reaching the detector is reduced by a factor
of 4 if the distance between the detector and the fire is
doubled. For the consumption of the atmospheric extinction, the
exponential term 

Zeta (z) is added to the equation. Zeta is a measure of the
clarity of the air at the wavelength under consideration. Zeta is
affected by humidity, dust, and any other contaminants in the air
that are absorbent at the wavelength in question. Zeta generally
has values between –0.001 and –0.1 for normal ambient air.

NFPA 72-1999 2-4.3.1.1 Radiant energy-sensing fire detectors will
be employed consistent with the listing or approval and the
inverse square law, which defines the fire size versus distance
curve for the detector.

NFPA 72-1999 Figure A-2-4.2.1 An ultraviolet flame detector
responds to radiant energy having a wavelength that is shorter
than those wavelengths to which the human eye responds.

NFPA 72-1999 Figure A-2-4.2.1 An infrared flame detector responds
to radiant energy having a wavelength that is longer than those
wavelengths to which the human eye responds.

NFPA 72-1999 Table 7-3.2 Flame detectors are to be tested upon
acceptance, re-acceptance, and semiannually.

NFPA 72-1999 A-2-4.3.1.1 Given the radiant power reaching a flame
detector from a fire located some distance away. If the distance
between the fire and the detector is doubled, the radiant power
reaching the flame detector will be one-fourth the original given
value.

NFPA 72-1999 Table 7-3.1 Flame detectors must be visually
inspected upon acceptance, re-acceptance, and at least quarterly

NFPA 72-1999 Table 7-2.2 Using a cigarette lighter is not a
permitted method for testing flame detectors.

NFPA 72-1999 Table 7-3.2 The measurement of the sensitivity of a
flame detector is required at least every time the detector is tested.


THE INFORMATION HEREIN IS PROVIDED AS A GUIDE ONLY AND IS
INTENDED TO ASSIST YOU IN PREPARING FOR AN EXAM. IT IS NOT
INTENDED TO BE INCLUSIVE OF ALL INFORMATION THAT MAY BE ON AN
EXAM BUT RATHER IT IS INTENDED TO BE A SMALL SAMPLE OF THE KIND
OF MATERIAL THAT YOU MAY BE EXPECTED TO KNOW.

================================================================
NICET TEST DATES
================================================================

OREGON
------
OR1 PCC Sylvania, Portland;
Test 11/15/03. Postmark deadline 9/27/03.
Test ??/??/04. Postmark deadline 12/1/03.

OR2 Clackamas Community College, Oregon City;
Test 9/27/03. Postmark deadline 8/9/03.
Test 11/15/03. Postmark deadline 9/27/03.

These dates are from the NICET web site. For a complete list of
all test centers and test dates, visit:
http://63.70.211.210/cfdocs/nicetschedule.cfm

================================================================
AFAA CLASS SCHEDULE
================================================================

------------------
August 18-19, 2003 Tulsa, OK - Conducted by OK AFAA
------------------
Automatic Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/Auto_Fire_Detection_OKC_August_2003
_Tulsa.pdf

------------------
August 21-22, 2003 Oklahoma City, OK - Conducted by OK AFAA
------------------
Automatic Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/Auto_Fire_Detection_OKC_August_2003.
pdf

------------------
September 9-11, 2003 Batavia, NY - Sponsored by NYBFA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/NYBFA_Sept03.pdf

------------------
September 15-18, 2003 Oakland, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Plan Review Seminar
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/PR_INT_CAFAA_OAKLAND_SEPT2003.PDF

------------------
September 22-25, 2003 Lafayette, LA - Sponsored by LA AFAA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/INT_TI_LAAFAA_Lafayette_Sept2003.pdf

------------------
September 16-18, 2003 Philadelphia, PA - Co-sponsored by PA AFAA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Philadelphia_Sept2003.pdf

------------------
October 8-9, 2003 Wichita, KS - Sponsored by KS AFAA
------------------
Plans Review Seminar.
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspections Seminar.
More information will be available soon.

------------------
October 15-17, 2003 Boston, MA - Sponsored by New England AFAA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
October 21-23, 2003 Anchorage, AK
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Anchorage_Oct2003.pdf

------------------
November 3-6, 2003 Anaheim, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Plan Review Seminar
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
November 4-7, 2003 Boston, MA - Sponsored by New England AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
November 21, 2003 Reno, NV
------------------
Plan Review Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
December 2-4, 2003 Phoenix, AZ - Co-sponsored by AZ AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
December 9-11, 2003 San Antonio, TX - Co-sponsored by TX AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

================================================================
COMMENTS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
================================================================

Engineering Technician info: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos112.htm

ET News is published weekly and if possible, delivered on Sunday

ET News php/MySQL site by: Doug Hockinson http://metrodenver.org

The NICET acronym found herein refers to http://www.nicet.org
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATION IN ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

The AFAA acronym found herein refers to http://www.afaa.org
AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM ASSOCIATION "AFAA is celebrating 50 years!"
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reprinted with permission from one or more of the following;
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code(r), NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm
Code(r), and NFPA 101(r) Life Safety Code(r), Copyright(c) NFPA,
Quincy, MA 02269. This reprinted material is not the complete and
official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is
represented only by the standard in its entirety.
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This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.