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July 27, 2003

                             ET NEWS
================================================================
        NEWS AND INFORMATION FOR ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS
----------------------------------------------------------------
Issue No. 109          http://www.etnews.org           7-27-2003
================================================================

Contents
--------
- News
- ET Journal
- NICET Test Dates
- AFAA Class Schedule
- Comments & Acknowledgements

================================================================
NEWS
================================================================

Seminars coming to a city near you in August:

------------------
August 5-7, 2003 St. Louis, MO
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_StLouis_Aug2003.pdf

------------------
August 19-21, 2003 Denver, CO - Co-sponsored by Rocky Mtn AFAA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Denver_August2003.pdf

----------------------------------------------------------------

I'll see you in Happyrock this week.

Have fun!

Mike
mailto:mbbaker@etnews.org

================================================================
ET JOURNAL
================================================================

NICET Fire Alarm Systems Level IV
38005 SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS
---------------------------------

38005 is a Level IV Special work element.

38005 DESCRIPTION
Understand smoke control systems; understand the purpose,
operation, methods of controlling smoke spread, basic
requirements, types, and location of smoke detectors used to help
achieve smoke control in smoke compartments, air duct systems,
and door release service. (NFPA 72, NFPA 90A, NFPA 92A, Fire
Protection Handbook, SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection
Engineering, Fire Alarm Signaling Systems)

38005 REFERENCES
NFPA 72
http://www.etnews.org/index.php?s=461&bid=5

NFPA 90A
http://www.etnews.org/index.php?s=461&bid=16

NFPA 92A
http://www.etnews.org/index.php?s=461&bid=35

Fire Protection Handbook
http://www.etnews.org/index.php?s=461&bid=7

SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering
http://www.etnews.org/index.php?s=461&bid=20

Fire Alarm Signaling Systems
http://www.etnews.org/index.php?s=461&bid=6

38005 DESCRIPTION BREAKDOWN
Understand smoke control systems; understand the purpose,
operation, methods of controlling smoke spread, basic
requirements, types, and location of smoke detectors used to help
achieve smoke control in smoke compartments, air duct systems,
and door release service.

Glossary of terms

Smoke. The airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases
evolved when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion,
together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise
mixed into the mass.

Smoke Barrier. A continuous membrane, either vertical or
horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly that is
designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. See
also NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, Chapter 6 for additional
guidance.

Smoke Compartment. A smoke compartment is a space within a
building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the
top and bottom. In the provision of smoke compartments utilizing
the outside walls or the roof of a building, it is not intended
that outside walls or roofs or any openings therein be capable of
resisting the passage of smoke.

Smoke Control. A system that utilizes fans to produce pressure
differences so as to manage smoke movement.

Smoke Damper. A device within the air distribution system to
control the movement of smoke. Smoke dampers are subjected to
various pressure differentials, are exposed to elevated
temperatures, and can be required to open or close against
mechanically induced airflow. Some such devices are listed in UL
Building Materials Directory under the category "Leakage Rated
Dampers (OOYZ)."

Smoke control systems are often found in high-rise buildings,
covered malls, atriums, and high value properties such as
computer rooms, telephone central offices, and semiconductor
fabrication plants.

Smoke control systems are used wherever additional time may be
required to allow occupants to evacuate a building, such as
hospitals, assisted-care facilities, and high-rise building.

Smoke detectors can be used to prevent smoke spread by initiating
control of fans, dampers, and doors.

NFPA 90A-1999 4-4.2 Smoke detectors listed for use in air
distribution systems are to be located:
o Downstream of air filters and ahead of any branch connections
in the air supply system having a capacity greater than 2000
ft^3/min. 
o At each story prior to the connection to a common return and
prior to any recirculation or fresh air inlet connections in air
return systems having a capacity greater than 15,000 ft^3/min and
serving more than one story.

NFPA 72-1999 A-2-10.3 Smoke detectors may be used to initiate
systems and components used to control of the spread of smoke by:
o Preventing the recirculation of dangerous quantities of smoke
within a building.
o Operating equipment to exhaust smoke from a building.
o Operating equipment to pressurize smoke compartments within a
building.
o Operating doors, dampers, & smoke compartment openings

NFPA 72-1999 2-10.6.5.1.1 If a ceiling mounted smoke detector is
used to initiate single door release service and the depth of the
wall section above the door is 24" or less, one smoke detector is
required on either side of the door installed on the ceiling and
located between 12" and 60" measured on the centerline from the
door opening.

NFPA 92A-1996 1-4 Smoke control systems:
 o Are used to maintain a tenable environment within the path of
 egress during an evacuation.
 o Are not expected to provide tenable conditions in the
 immediate area of the fire.
 o Are used to control and reduce the smoke migration from the
 fire area.
 o Are used to exhaust smoke from an area to improve visibility
 and assist occupants in locating a usable path of egress.
 o Are not used to exhaust smoke from a building.
 o Are used to provide conditions outside the fire zone that will
 assist emergency response personnel in their search and rescue
 operations and in their effort to locate and control the fire.
 o Are used to contribute to the protection of life and reduce
 property loss.

Smoke control is accomplished by creating smoke zones within the
building using smoke barriers such as walls, floors, and ceilings.

Smoke control includes providing the ability to create pressure
differences across smoke zone boundaries to facilitate the
movement of smoke to a smoke zone from adjacent zones.

Example. Two floors of a high-rise sandwiching a third floor. As
the pressure in the outer floors is increased above the inner
third floor, smoke will flow from the two outer floors to the
inner floor. This can be accomplished with a common duct
connected through dampers to each individual floor and supplied
with a make-up air fan. Smoke control can be accomplished without
a fan using dampers to control pressure variants and relying on
natural circulation.

The advantages of a dedicated smoke control system, one which
uses components installed for smoke control only, include:
 o Modifications during system maintenance are less likely to
 occur.
 o Operation tends to be simpler.
 o The system is less likely to be affected by modifications to
 other building systems.

The disadvantages of a dedicated smoke control system include:
 o They tend to be more expensive.
 o Component failure may not be discovered immediately because a
 failure in the smoke control system will not affect ordinary
 building HVAC operation.
 o The system usually require additional space.

The advantages of a non-dedicated smoke control system, a system
that uses equipment in place for other purposes, include:
 o Component failure will probably be discovered more readily.
 o They tend to be less expensive.
 o There are typically no additional space requirements.

The disadvantages of a non-dedicated smoke control system
include:
 o System control may be more complex.
 o Unintentional modifications of components affecting smoke
 control operation are more likely to occur.
 o Ordinary system modifications may adversely affect smoke
 control operation.

Smoke control system types include:
 o Shaft protection; stairwell and elevator hoistway
 pressurization.
 o Floor protection: A combination of systems.

Components of a smoke control system include:
 o Controls
 o Mechanical Systems
 o Fans
 o Dampers
 o Ducts
 o Smoke Barriers
 o Floors
 o Walls
 o Dampers

Smoke control may be activated automatically by the fire alarm
system via smoke detectors, heat detectors, and waterflow
detectors; or they may be activated manual via the firefighter's
smoke control system.

NFPA 92A 1996 3-4.3.4 The Firefighter's Smoke Control Station
(FSCS)
 o Provides a graphical illustration of the smoke control system
 components.
 o Provides status indication and control of components such as
 fans and dampers.
 o Enjoys the highest priority.
Except devices that prevent electrical overload, provide for
personnel safety, or prevent major system damage.

NFPA 92A-1996 3-4.3.4 Automatic smoke control has the highest
priority over building controls.
Except the priority over static high pressure limits and duct
detectors in supply air systems.

Automatic smoke control has the lowest priority over manual FSCS
control.

Manual smoke control will override automatic smoke control and
other automatic controls in the building.

Firefighter's Smoke Control System (FSCS) has priority over all
other systems.
Except special safety switches and overcurrent devices.


THE INFORMATION HEREIN IS PROVIDED AS A GUIDE ONLY AND IS
INTENDED TO ASSIST YOU IN PREPARING FOR AN EXAM. IT IS NOT
INTENDED TO BE INCLUSIVE OF ALL INFORMATION THAT MAY BE ON AN
EXAM BUT RATHER IT IS INTENDED TO BE A SMALL SAMPLE OF THE KIND
OF MATERIAL THAT YOU MAY BE EXPECTED TO KNOW.

================================================================
NICET TEST DATES
================================================================

OREGON
------
OR1 PCC Sylvania, Portland;
Test 11/15/03. Postmark deadline 9/27/03.
Test ??/??/04. Postmark deadline 12/1/03.

OR2 Clackamas Community College, Oregon City;
Test 9/27/03. Postmark deadline 8/9/03.
Test 11/15/03. Postmark deadline 9/27/03.

These dates are from the NICET web site. For a complete list of
all test centers and test dates, visit:
http://63.70.211.210/cfdocs/nicetschedule.cfm

================================================================
AFAA CLASS SCHEDULE
================================================================

------------------
August 5-7, 2003 St. Louis, MO
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_StLouis_Aug2003.pdf

------------------
August 19-21, 2003 Denver, CO - Co-sponsored by Rocky Mtn AFAA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Denver_August2003.pdf

------------------
September 9-11, 2003 Batavia, NY - Sponsored by NYBFA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/NYBFA_Sept03.pdf

------------------
September 15-18, 2003 Oakland, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Plan Review Seminar
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
September 16-18, 2003 Boston, MA - Sponsored by New England AFAA
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspections Seminar
Automatic Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems Seminar (Fund.)
More information will be available soon.

------------------
September 22-25, 2003 Lafayette, LA - Sponsored by LA AFAA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/INT_TI_LAAFAA_Lafayette_Sept2003.pdf

------------------
October 8-9, 2003 Wichita, KS - Sponsored by KS AFAA
------------------
Plans Review Seminar.
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspections Seminar.
More information will be available soon.

------------------
October 15-17, 2003 Boston, MA - Sponsored by New England AFAA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
October 21-23, 2003 Anchorage, AK
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
November 3-6, 2003 Anaheim, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Plan Review Seminar
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
November 4-7, 2003 Boston, MA - Sponsored by New England AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
November 21, 2003 Reno, NV
------------------
Plan Review Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
December 2-4, 2003 Phoenix, AZ - Co-sponsored by AZ AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
December 9-11, 2003 San Antonio, TX - Co-sponsored by TX AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

================================================================
COMMENTS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
================================================================

Engineering Technician info: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos112.htm

ET News is published weekly and if possible, delivered on Sunday

ET News php/MySQL site by: Doug Hockinson http://metrodenver.org

The NICET acronym found herein refers to http://www.nicet.org
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATION IN ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

The AFAA acronym found herein refers to http://www.afaa.org
AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM ASSOCIATION "AFAA is celebrating 50 years!"
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Some information may be found within this email message that is
reprinted with permission from one or more of the following;
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code(r), NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm
Code(r), and NFPA 101(r) Life Safety Code(r), Copyright(c) NFPA,
Quincy, MA 02269. This reprinted material is not the complete and
official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is
represented only by the standard in its entirety.
================================================================
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This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.