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April 20, 2003

                             ET NEWS
================================================================
        NEWS AND INFORMATION FOR ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS
----------------------------------------------------------------
Issue No. 95           http://www.etnews.org           4-20-2003
================================================================

Contents
--------
- News
- ET Journal
- NICET Test Dates
- AFAA Class Schedule
- Comments & Acknowledgements

================================================================
NEWS
================================================================

Current Fire Protection Certifications top 14,000
With more and more technicians and jurisdictions getting fired up
over NICET’s programs, the Institute’s rosters now list more than
14,000 current certifications in fire protection.
(Fire Protection comprises the four subfields of Fire Alarm
Systems, Automatic Sprinkler System Layout, Special Hazards
Suppression Systems, and Inspection and Testing of Water-Based
Systems.) 

 o With over 8,800 current certifications, Fire Alarm Systems is
 NICET's most popular certification program. The following states
 claim the most Fire Alarm certificants: Florida (over 850);
 California (over 700); Texas (over 650); and Michigan (over 550). 

 o There are more than 3600 current certifications in Automatic
 Sprinkler System Layout. Texas holds more Sprinkler certificants
 (over 300) than any other state. 

 o Level IV certifications in Fire Protection:
   Automatic Sprinkler System Layout – over 800
   Fire Alarm Systems – over 600 
   Special Hazards – over 100

Source: http://www.nicet.org/about/news.htm

----------------------------------------------------------------

Do you have your license renewal CEU's and CPD points? Sign up
now and earn *21 CEU's or CPD points by attending one of these
seminars coming soon to the Northwest!

------------------
April 22-24, 2003 Boise, ID
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Boise_April2003.pdf

------------------
April 29-30 & May 1, 2003 Seattle, WA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Seattle_April2003.pdf

------------------
May 13-15, 2003 Billings, MT
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Billings_May2003.pdf

*21 CEU's & CPD points are based upon 21 classroom (contact)
hours.
CPD (Continuing Professional Development). NICET recertification
requires 90 CPD points during each 3-year certificate cycle. See
NICET policy #30 for more information http://www.nicet.org/about
/policy30.htm.

----------------------------------------------------------------

I'll see you in Boise this week.

Have fun!

Mike
mailto:mbbaker@etnews.org

================================================================
ET JOURNAL
================================================================

NICET Fire Alarm Systems Level III
35015 INTERCONNECTION WITH EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS
------------------------------------------------

35015 is a Level III General Non-Core Work element.

General Work Elements are categorized as either Core or Non-Core
Work Elements. All Level III General Core Work Elements
constitute a mandatory requirement for achieving certification at
Levels III and IV.

35015 DESCRIPTION
Understand how automatic fire alarm systems are used to actuate
extinguishing systems, including sprinkler, halon 1301, carbon
dioxide or CO2, FM-200, Intergen, FE-13, wet and dry chemical,
foam and hi-ex foam. Know which type of detectors are used and
know how they are spaced for each type of extinguishing system,
and know the uses of "cross zoning" for these systems. (Fire
Protection Handbook and Fire Alarm Signaling Systems) 

35015 REFERENCES:
Fire Protection Handbook
Eighteenth Edition
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=fph
1897

2003 Edition
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=fph
1903

Fire Alarm Signaling Systems
1994 version
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=fas
s94

2003 version
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=fas
s03

35015 DESCRIPTION BREAKDOWN:
"Understand how automatic fire alarm systems are used to actuate
extinguishing systems, including sprinkler, halon 1301, carbon
dioxide or CO2, FM-200, Intergen, FE-13, wet and dry chemical,
foam and hi-ex foam. Know which type of detectors are used and
know how they are spaced for each type of extinguishing system,
and know the uses of "cross zoning" for these systems."

Glossary of terms

Halon 1301. For many years, people recognized Halon 1301 as one
of the most effective fire suppression agents for a diverse array
of applications. It quickly extinguished all major classes of
fires. It was especially effective in high-value asset protection
situations where it caused no residual damage to delicate
equipment. In addition, Halon 1301 systems were utilized for both
occupied and unoccupied spaces and were easily installed by
professionally trained fire protection systems dealers. But Halon
1301 was thought to have significant environmental consequences
due to its potential contribution to depleting the stratospheric
ozone layer. With a phase out of Halon 1301 production, effective
in all countries by the end of 1993, the quest for a replacement
resulted in the introduction of a number of clean fire
suppression agents to the market place.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless, electrically
nonconductive gas with an approximate density 50% greater than
air. It is stored in steel cylinders as a liquid, under pressure.
When applied to a fire, it provides a blanket of heavy gas that
reduces the oxygen content of the atmosphere to a point where
combustion becomes impossible. In addition, CO2 gas provides a
cooling effect and leaves no residue. It dissipates into the
atmosphere, allowing for rapid cleanup and minimal downtime.

FM-200® (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane) is a zero ozone
epletion potential (ODP) replacement for Halon 1301 in total
flood applications. Boiling point and vapor pressure are two of
the more important physical properties of a fire suppression
agent. FM-200® is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric
pressure. The boiling point determines the agent's aptitude for
total flooding or streaming applications. Total flooding
suppression agents must be gaseous under normal conditions to
penetrate into cabinets and restricted spaces. 

The agent's vapor pressure determines if typical Halon-type
hardware can be used, or if expensive, high-pressure, low
capacity, equipment is necessary. The vapor pressure is the
pressure where liquefaction occurs, and depends on temperature.
When compressed, the pressure increases, and if the pressure
increases to the vapor pressure of the agent, the gaseous agent
becomes a liquid. For a cylinder with liquid FM-200®, the
pressure is determined by the vapor pressure as long as the
liquid and vapor are in equilibrium ("saturation conditions"). 

Inergen, a fire-extinguishing agent, is a mixture of three gases:
52% nitrogen, 40% argon, and 8% carbon dioxide. Inergen agent
extinguishes fire by lowering the oxygen content below the level
that supports combustion. When Inergen agent is discharged into a
room, it introduces the proper mixture of gases that still allow
a person to breathe in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. The normal
atmosphere in a room contains approximately 21% oxygen and less
than 1% carbon dioxide. If the oxygen content is reduced below
15% most ordinary combustibles will not burn. Inergen agent will
reduce the oxygen content to approximately 12.5% while increasing
the carbon dioxide content to about 4%.

FE-13 was developed originally by DuPont as chemical refrigerant.
Its molecules at the flame front absorb heat from a fire, much
the same way a sponge absorbs liquid, until the atmosphere will
no longer support combustion. FE-13 is a gaseous agent, leaving
no residue behind to damage sensitive equipment or require labor-
intensive cleanup operations. FE-13 is chemically and
biologically unreactive. It is safe for use in occupied spaces
with no exposure restrictions up to its NOAEL concentration of
30% (typical systems are designed for 16-21% concentration).
Stored in high-pressure steel cylinders, FE-13 discharges
completely into a protected area in ten seconds or less, before
a fire has the opportunity to spread or grow in intensity. FE-13
contains no chlorine or bromine and its ozone depletion potential
is zero. It has a low atmospheric lifetime that earned FE-13 an
"acceptable" rating from the U.S. EPA with no usage restrictions.

Wet chemical system is an effective way for suppressing
commercial cooking fires before major damage occurs. When the wet
agent is applied in a concentrated liquid spray to a burning
surface, it reacts quickly with the hot grease or oil to produce
a synthetic foam blanketing the surface. This reaction, combined
with the cooling effect of the liquid, also reduces the
possibility of fire reflash.

Dry chemical is a mixture of powders that is used as a fire-
extinguishing agent. Examples include sodium-bicarbonate base
dry chemical (termed "regular dry chemical") for Class B
(flammable liquid) and Class C (electrical equipment) fires and
monammonium-phosphate base (termed "multi-purpose dry chemical")
for Class A (ordinary combustibles), Class B, and Class C fires.

The mixtures of powders used in dry-chemical extinguishing agents
are nontoxic. However, the discharge of large amounts of dry
chemical may cause temporary breathing difficulty during and
immediately after discharge and may cause serious visibility
problems. After discharge, the dry chemical should be removed
from any valuable equipment to prevent a possible reaction
between materials in the presence of moisture. Personnel in
contact with the agent should remove the dry chemical from their
skin with tap water.

Regular dry chemical is highly efficient in extinguishing fires
in flammable liquids. It can also be used on fires involving some
types of electrical equipment, such as turbine generators, oil-
filled circuit breakers, and transformers.

Foam systems come in two types:
 o Low Expansion, where the bubble expansion ratio is small (less
  than 20 to 1) and the bubble contains a high water content.
 o Medium and High Expansion, where the expansion ratios are
 greater, from 20 to 1 up to 1,000 to 1. At these expansion
 ratios, and bubble water content is low and the bubble is
 relatively light.

The foam bubbles are made by mixing a foam concentrate with water
to make a foam solution. The foam solution is then mechanically
agitated to form bubbles.

Low Expansion Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems are applicable to
special hazards, usually involving flammable or combustible
liquids, such as storage tanks. These systems discharge foam
bubbles over the liquid surface to provide a cooling, smothering
blanket, which progressively covers the liquid surface and
extinguishes the fire. The foam blanket can prevent vapor
production for some time.

Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) functions in a similar manner,
but with one notable difference: AFFF is capable of producing
water solution films, which float on the surface of the liquid
and help suppress vapor production. However, this beneficial
"film" is obtained with some loss of burn-back resistance.

Hi-ex foam. High Expansion foam systems are applicable to areas
where it might be desirable to fill the space with foam in order
to exclude air and smother the fire. Examples of such areas
include basements and warehouses.

Cross-zone. An initiating circuit configuration, which allows an
alarm only after two or more devices, is in alarm.

The following conditions apply when automatic detection is used
to activate extinguishing systems:
 o The equipment used will be listed or approved.
 o The equipment should detect heat, smoke, flame, combustible
 vapors, or any condition that could indicate a fire.
 o The control panel will have reliable and adequate power.
 o The power source for the detection system will be independent
 of the power for the protected area. A battery supply with
 automatic switchover is to be provided.

Automatic detection and activation equipment will be supervised
with and indicated at a constantly attended location.

Audible alarms will indicate system operation. Refer to local
codes for type and location of alarms.

Additional alarms are to be provided to indicate the system has
operated; to give personnel advance warning of a discharge
(especially for carbon dioxide, Halon, and foam); and to indicate
an equipment failure.

Pre-action and Deluge Extinguishing Systems
Pre-action and deluge systems normally do not have water in the
system piping. The water supply is controlled by a valve operated
by the detection system and provided with a manual activation
means independent of the sprinkler.

A pre-action system employs automatic sprinklers attached to a
piping system that contain air and may or may not be under
pressure. Activation of the detection system opens a valve and
permits water to flow into the piping to be discharged from any
open sprinkler head.

A deluge system employs open sprinklers attached to the piping
system. When the valve opens, water is discharged from all
sprinklers. Deluge systems are used where occupancy conditions
or special hazard require quick applications of large amounts of
water.

Fire detection devices should be selected to assure operation,
yet guard against “false discharges”. In areas with high ceiling
temperatures, heat detectors should be selected. Detectors should
be located and spaced in accordance with their listings and
manufacturer’s recommendations. When automatic sprinklers are
used as detectors, the distance between detectors and the area
per detector should not exceed the maximum permitted for
suppression sprinklers as specified by the local code.

A combined dry pipe and pre-action sprinkler system uses a piping
system containing air under pressure and a supplemental fire
detection system. Either system can operate independently of the
other.

Each dry pipe valve should have an approved tripping device
actuated by the fire detection system. Dry pipe valves should be
cross connected through a 1” pipe connection to permit
simultaneous tripping of both dry pipe valves. The connection
should also have a gate valve to facilitate service of the system.

Halon Systems
Halon systems are permanently piped systems that discharge a
measured supply of Halon gas into an enclosed area. They are
often used in computer rooms, libraries, archives, etc.

Halon 1301 systems should be automatically activated by an
approved method of detection, meeting the requirements of NFPA
72. Where the A/C system could exhaust the Halon, the system
should shut down the A/C system when activated. Computer
equipment does not need to be de-energized prior to discharge.
Alarms should be provided to indicate a discharge or pending
discharge. Detection devices should be installed in underfloor of
computer facilities. “Cross-zoning” requires the activation of
two separate detectors to discharge the Halon. Activation of one
detector alone activates local and remote alarms, but does not
discharge the Halon. The two zones may contain the same or
different types of detectors. Ionization and photoelectric
detectors are popularly used in computer and EDP areas.

High Expansion Foam Systems
This system is a fixed extinguishing system which generates a
foam agent for total flooding of confined spaces and for
volumetric displacement of vapor, heat, and smoke. They
extinguish fires by preventing free movement of air, reducing the
oxygen concentration at the fire, and by cooling.

Abort switches on any type of system should be of the "dead man"
type requiring continuous activation and any manual release
station would override any abort.

When two or more smoke detectors are required to alarm before
releasing an extinguishing system:
 o Detector spacing should be half the normal installed spacing
 for the application
 o Detectors should be spaced using the UL listing spacing

Alternating detectors of the photoelectric and ionization type
should be installed on the ceiling in the protected area. Use the
manufacturer’s recommended detector spacing.

FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS
Wet-pipe Automatic Sprinkler system.
A permanently piped water system under pressure, using heat-
actuated sprinklers. When a fire occurs the sprinklers exposed to
the high heat open and discharge water individually to control or
extinguish the fire.	Automatically detects and controls fire.
Protects structure. May cause water damage to protected books,
manuscripts, records, paintings, specimens, or other valuable
objects. Not to be used in spaces subject to freezing. On-off
types may limit water damage. See NFPA 13 Standard for the
Installation of Sprinkler Systems and NFPA 22 Standard for Water
Tanks for Private Fire Protection.

Pre-action automatic sprinkler system.
A system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping
system containing air that may or may not be under pressure, with
a supplemental fire detection system installed in the same area
as the sprinklers. Actuation of the fire detection system by a
fire opens a valve, which permits water to flow into the
sprinkler system piping and to be discharged from any sprinklers
that are opened by the heat from the fire.	Automatically detects
and controls fire. May be installed in areas subject to freezing.
Minimizes the accidental discharge of water due to mechanical
damage to sprinkler heads or piping and thus is useful for the
protection of paintings, drawings, fabrics, manuscripts,
specimens, and other valuable or irreplaceable articles that are
susceptible to damage or destruction by water. See NFPA 13
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems and NFPA 22
Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection.

On-off automatic sprinkler system.
A system similar to the pre-action system, except that the fire
detection operation acts as an electrical interlock, causing the
control valve to open at a predetermined temperature and close
when normal temperature is restored. Should the fire rekindle
after sits initial control, the valve will reopen and water will
again flow from the opened heads. The valve will continue to open
and close in accordance with the temperature sensed by the fire
detectors. Another type of on-off system is a standard wet-pipe
system with on-off sprinkler heads. Here each individual head has
incorporated in it a temperature-sensitive device, which causes
the head to open at a predetermined temperature and close
automatically when the temperature at the head is restored to
normal.	In addition to the favorable feature of the automatic
wet-pipe system, these systems have the ability to automatically
stop the flow of water when no longer needed, thus eliminating
unnecessary water damage. See NFPA 13 Standard for the
Installation of Sprinkler Systems and NFPA 22 Standard for Water
Tanks for Private Fire Protection.

Dry-pipe automatic sprinkler system.
Has heat-operated sprinklers attached to a piping system
containing air under pressure. When a sprinkler operates, the air
pressure is reduced, a “dry-pipe” valve is opened by water
pressure and water flows to any opened sprinklers. See "Wet-pipe
Automatic Sprinkler system". Can protect areas subject to
freezing. Water supply must be in a heated area. See NFPA 13
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems and NFPA 22
Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection.

Standpipe and hose systems.
A piping system in a building to which hoses are connected for
emergency use by building occupants or by the fire department.
A desirable complement to an automatic sprinkler systems. Staff
requires training to use hoses effectively. See NFPA 14 Standpipe
and Hose Systems.

Halon automatic system.
A permanently piped system using a limited stored supply of a
Halon gas under pressure and discharge nozzles totally flood an
enclosed area. Released automatically by a suitable detection
system. Extinguishing fires by inhibiting the chemical reaction
of fuel and Oxygen.	No agent damage to protected books,
manuscripts, records, paintings, or other irreplaceable valuable
objects. No agent residue. Halon 1301 can be used with safeguards
in normally occupied areas. Halon 1211 total flooding systems are
prohibited in normally occupied areas. Halons may not extinguish
deep-seated fires in ordinary solid combustibles such as paper,
fabrics, etc.; but are effective on surface fires in these
materials. These systems require special precautions to avoid
damage effects caused by their extremely rapid release. The high
velocity discharge from nozzles may be sufficient to dislodge
substantial objects directly in the path. NFPA 12A Standard on
Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems and NFPA 12B Standard on
Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishing Systems.

Carbon dioxide automatic system.
Same as "Halon automatic system" except uses carbon dioxide gas.
Extinguishes fire by reducing oxygen content of air below
combustion support point. Appropriate for service and utility
areas. Personnel must evacuate before discharge to avoid
suffocation. May not extinguish deep-seated fires in ordinary
solid combustibles such as paper, fabrics, etc.; but effective
on surface fires in these materials. See NFPA 12 Carbon Dioxide
Extinguishing Systems.

Dry chemical automatic system.
Same as "Halon automatic system" except uses a dry chemical
powder. Usually released by mechanical thermal linkage.
Effective for surface protection. Should not be used in
personnel-occupied areas. Leaves powdery deposit on all exposed
surfaces. Requires cleanup. Excellent for service facilities
having kitchen range hoods and ducts. May not extinguish deep-
seated fires in ordinary solid combustibles such as paper,
fabric, etc.; but effective on surface fires in these materials.
See NFPA 17 Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems.

High expansion foam system.
A fixed extinguishing system which generates a foam agent for
total flooding of confined spaces, and for volumetric
displacement of vapor, heat, and smoke. Acts on the fire by:
 o Preventing free movement of air
 o Reducing the oxygen concentration at the fire
 o Cooling

Should not be used in occupied areas. The discharge of large
amounts of high expansion foam may inundate personnel blocking
vision, making hearing difficult, and creating some discomfort
in breathing. Leaves residue and requires cleanup. High expansion
foam when used in conjunction with water sprinklers will provide
more positive control and extinguishments than either
extinguishments system used independently, when properly
designed. See NFPA 11A Standard for Medium and High Expansion
Foam Systems.


THE INFORMATION HEREIN IS PROVIDED AS A GUIDE ONLY AND IS
INTENDED TO ASSIST YOU IN PREPARING FOR AN EXAM. IT IS NOT
INTENDED TO BE INCLUSIVE OF ALL INFORMATION THAT MAY BE ON AN
EXAM BUT RATHER IT IS INTENDED TO BE A SMALL SAMPLE OF THE KIND
OF MATERIAL THAT YOU MAY BE EXPECTED TO KNOW.

================================================================
NICET TEST DATES
================================================================

OREGON
------
OR1 PCC Sylvania, Portland;
Test 4/26/03. Postmark deadline 3/8/03.
Test 7/26/03. Postmark deadline 6/7/03.

OR2 Clackamas Community College, Oregon City;
Test 6/21/03. Postmark deadline 5/3/03.
Test 9/27/03. Postmark deadline 8/9/03.

WASHINGTON
----------
WA1 Bates Technical College, Tacoma;
Test 5/17/03. Postmark deadline 3/29/03.
Test 7/26/03. Postmark deadline 6/7/03.

WA2 Walla Walla Community College;
Test 5/17/03. Postmark deadline 3/29/03.
Test 9/27/03. Postmark deadline 8/9/03.

WA3 Spokane Community College;
Test 5/17/03. Postmark deadline 3/29/03.
Test 8/23/03. Postmark deadline 7/7/03.

These dates are from the NICET web site. For a complete list of
all test centers and test dates, visit:
http://63.70.211.210/cfdocs/nicetschedule.cfm

================================================================
AFAA CLASS SCHEDULE
================================================================

------------------
April 22-24, 2003 Richmond, VA - Sponsored by VA AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/ADV_Richmond_Apr2003.pdf

------------------
April 22-24, 2003 Boise, ID
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Boise_April2003.pdf

------------------
April 29-30 & May 1, 2003 Seattle, WA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Seattle_April2003.pdf

------------------
May 5-8, 2003 Anaheim, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspection Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/INT_TI_CAFAA_ANAHEIM_May2003.pdf
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/INT_TI_CAFAA_ANAHEIM_May2003.pdf

------------------
May 6-8, 2003 Chicago, IL
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar.
More information will be available soon.

------------------
May 13-15, 2003 Billings, MT
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Billings_May2003.pdf

------------------
June 9-12, 2003 Sacramento, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspections Seminar
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
June 10-12, 2003 Alexandria, LA - Sponsored by LA AFAA
------------------
Automatic Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems Seminar (Fund.)
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspections Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
June 17-19, 2003 Las Vegas, NV
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_LasVegas_June2003.pdf

------------------
July 14-17, 2003 Anaheim, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Plan Review Seminar
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
September 15-18, 2003 Oakland, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Plan Review Seminar
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
September 16-18, 2003 Boston, MA - Sponsored by New England AFAA
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspections Seminar
Automatic Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems Seminar (Fund.)
More information will be available soon.

------------------
September 22-25, 2003 Lafayette, LA - Sponsored by LA AFAA
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspections Seminar
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
October 15-17, 2003 Boston, MA - Sponsored by New England AFAA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
November 3-6, 2003 Anaheim, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Plan Review Seminar
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

------------------
November 4-7, 2003 Boston, MA - Sponsored by New England AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar
More information will be available soon.

================================================================
COMMENTS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
================================================================

ET News is published weekly and if possible, delivered on Sunday

ET News php/MySQL website: Doug Hockinson http://metrodenver.org

The NICET acronym found herein refers to http://www.nicet.org
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATION IN ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

The AFAA acronym found herein refers to http://www.afaa.org
AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM ASSOCIATION "AFAA is celebrating 50 years!"
----------------------------------------------------------------
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reprinted with permission from one or more of the following;
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code(r), NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm
Code(r), and NFPA 101(r) Life Safety Code(r), Copyright(c) NFPA,
Quincy, MA 02269. This reprinted material is not the complete and
official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is
represented only by the standard in its entirety.
================================================================
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Some information may be found within this web site that is reprinted with permission from one or more of the following: NFPA 70 National Electrical Code®,NFPA 72® National Fire Alarm Code®, & NFPA 101® Life Safety Code®, Copyright© NFPA, Quincy, MA 02269.

This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.