Archives 2003
Issue No. 80
Issue No. 81
Issue No. 82
Issue No. 83
Issue No. 84
Issue No. 85
Issue No. 86
Issue No. 87
Issue No. 88
Issue No. 89
Issue No. 90
Issue No. 91
Issue No. 92
Issue No. 93
Issue No. 94
Issue No. 95
Issue No. 96
Issue No. 97
Issue No. 98
Issue No. 99
Issue No. 100
Issue No. 101
Issue No. 102
Issue No. 103
Issue No. 104
Issue No. 105
Issue No. 106
Issue No. 107
Issue No. 108
Issue No. 109
Issue No. 110
Issue No. 111
Issue No. 112
Issue No. 113
Issue No. 114
Issue No. 115
Issue No. 116
Issue No. 117
Issue No. 118
Issue No. 119
Issue No. 120
Issue No. 121
Issue No. 122
Issue No. 123
Issue No. 124
Issue No. 125
Issue No. 126
Issue No. 127
Issue No. 128
Issue No. 129
Issue No. 130
Issue No. 131

  Log In

 

February 2, 2003

                             ET NEWS
================================================================
        NEWS AND INFORMATION FOR ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS
----------------------------------------------------------------
Issue No. 84           http://www.etnews.org            2-2-2003
================================================================

Contents
--------
- News
- ET Journal
- NICET Test Dates
- AFAA Class Schedule
- Comments & Acknowledgements

================================================================
NEWS
================================================================

BOISE
-----
From _Hammer and Nail_ Winter 2003 edition:
http://www.boise-airport.com/pds/newsletters/Winter-2003.pdf

Proposed Fire Alarm Designer & Installer Policy Status Update
We’d like to thank everyone who responded to our request for
public input on the proposed policy which would require NICET
III certification or a PE license for design, and NICET II
supervision for the installation of fire alarm systems. Comments
on both proposals have been considered, and we are in the process
of further evaluating certain issues which were raised in those
comments. Here are a few examples of issues we are considering.
To avoid duplicate certification requirements, we are working
with the State Electrical Bureau to find a way to use their
electrical licensing program to verify a fire alarm installation
supervisor’s qualifications. Few people currently hold NICET III
certification, and we’re discussing ways of implementing
qualification requirements so we do not unintentionally create a
competitive advantage for contractors. We’re also searching for
comparable alternatives to NICET certifications. Until the issues
are satisfactorily resolved, we will temporarily accept any of
the three examples cited in paragraph A-1-5.1.3, NFPA 72, 1999
edition as acceptable qualifications for designers, and will
accept proper licensing by the State Electrical Bureau as
adequate qualification for supervision of installers. We will
request designer qualifications to be shown on the new Fire Alarm
Permit Application, which will be available on our website
(www.cityofboise.org/pds) before January 1, 2003.

----------------------------------------------------------------

PORTLAND
--------
A 3-day Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar (NICET I & II) is
scheduled for Portland on February 18-20, 2003 at the PDX Airport
Holiday Inn.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Portland_Feb2003.pdf

----------------------------------------------------------------

SEATTLE
-------
A 3-day Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar (NICET I & II) is
scheduled for Seattle on April 29-May 1, 2003. Additional
information including seminar location and registration form will
appear in next week's edition of ET News.

----------------------------------------------------------------

BOISE
-----
A 3-day Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar (NICET I & II) is
scheduled for Boise on April 22-24, 2003. Additional information
including seminar location and registration form will appear in
next week's edition of ET News.

----------------------------------------------------------------

I'm not off to Las Vegas this week.

Have fun!

Mike

================================================================
ET JOURNAL
================================================================

NICET Fire Alarm Systems Level III
35004 PRINCIPLES OF SMOKE MOVEMENT IN BUILDINGS
-----------------------------------------------

35004 is a Level III General Core Work element.

General Work Elements are categorized as either Core or Non-Core
Work Elements. All Level III General Core Work Elements
constitute a mandatory requirement for achieving certification at
Levels III and IV.

35004 DESCRIPTION
Understand the principles of smoke generation, expansion of gases,
smoke movement in tall buildings, stack effect, influence of
floors and partitions, and influence of ventilation systems.
(Fire Protection Handbook, SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection
Engineering)

35004 REFERENCES:
Fire Protection Handbook
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=fph1897

SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering 
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=hfpe01

35004 DESCRIPTION BREAKDOWN:
"Understand the principles of smoke generation, expansion of
gases, ..."
FIRE PROTECTION HANDBOOK Chapter 7:
AS a fire burns, it:
 o Generates heat.
 o Changes major portions of the burning material (fuel) from its
 original chemical composition to one or more other compounds,
 e.g., carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, and/or other
 compounds.
 o Often (due too less than complete combustion) transports a
 portion of the fuel as soot or other material that may or may
 not have undergone a chemical change.

A major portion of the heat generated as the fuel burns remains
in the mass of products liberated by the fire. The mass expands,
is lighter than the surrounding air, and rises as a plume. The
rising plume is turbulent and entrains large quantities of air
from the surrounding atmosphere into the rising gases. This
entrainment:
 o Increases the total mass and volume of the plume.
 o Cools the plume by mixing the cool entrained air with the
 rising hot gases. Normally the rising plume is hotter at its
 center and cooler towards the edges where cooler air is
 entrained.
 o Dilutes the concentration of fire-produced products in the
 plume.

Smoke is therefore defined as a mixture of hot vapors and gases
produced by the combustion process along with unburned
decomposition and condensation matter and the quantity of air
that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.


"... smoke movement in tall buildings, ..."
NFPA 101-1997 3-2 Hi-rise building. A building more than 75 feet
in height. Building height is measured from the lowest level of
fire department vehicle access to the floor of the highest
occupiable story.

FIRE PROTECTION HANDBOOK Chapter 7:
SMOKE MOVEMENT IN TALL BUILDINGS
Smoke can behave very differently in tall buildings than short
buildings. In shorter buildings the influences of fire such as
heat, convective movement, and fire pressures; are the major
factors which cause smoke movement. Smoke removal and venting
practices reflect this behavior. In tall buildings these same
factors are modified by the stack effect, which is the vertical
natural air movement through the building caused by the
differences in temperature and densities between the inside and
outside air. The stack effect can become an important factor in
smoke movement and in building design used to combat that
movement.

The predominant factors causing smoke movement in tall buildings
are:
 o The stack effect.
 o The influence of external wind forces.
 o The forced air movement within the building.

Smoke can behave very differently in tall buildings than in low
buildings. In the lower buildings, the influences of the fire,
such as heat, convective movements, and fire pressures, can be
the major factors that cause smoke movement. Smoke removal and
venting practices reflect this behavior. In tall buildings, these
same factors are complicated by the stack effect.


"... stack effect, ..."
FIRE PROTECTION HANDBOOK Chapter 7:
STACK EFFECT.
The vertical natural air movement through the building caused by
the differences in temperatures and densities between the inside
and outside air.

The stack effect is characterized by a strong draft from the
ground floor to the roof of a tall building. The magnitude of
this stack effect is a function of the building height, the
air-tightness of the exterior walls, the air leakage between
floors of the building, and the temperature difference between
the inside and outside of the building.

The stack effect accounts for most of the natural air movement in
buildings under normal conditions. During a fire, the stack
effect is often responsible for the wide distribution of smoke
and toxic gases in high-rise buildings.

Natural air movement within a building is altered by the stack
effect.

In tight-construction high-rise buildings with exterior
stairwells, reverse stack effect has been observed even with low
outside air temperatures.


"... influence of floors and partitions, and influence of
ventilation systems."
FIRE PROTECTION HANDBOOK Chapter 7:
FOR the purpose of describing smoke movement in buildings, the
treatment of movement is divided into two general areas:

1) HOT SMOKE ZONE
This includes those areas in a building where the temperature of
the smoke is high enough so that the natural buoyancy of the body
of smoke tends to lift the smoke towards the ceiling while clean
(or at least less polluted) air is drawn in through the lower
portion of the space. Normally this condition exists in the room
of fire origin. Also, depending on the level of energy produced
by the fire and the sized of connecting openings, e.g. open doors
etc., hot smoke zones can readily exist in adjacent rooms or
corridors. Industrial and warehouse smoke and heat venting, atria
smoke removal, and the movement of smoke in corridors open to
flashed-over spaces all involve a hot smoke zone where the smoke
is lifted and driven by the buoyant forces produced directly by
the fire.

2) COOL SMOKE ZONE (Rest of the building)
This includes those areas in a building where mixing and other
forms of heat transfer have reduced the effect of the driving
force of the fire to where buoyant lift in the smoke body is a
minor factor. In these areas other forces, such as wind and stack
effects and the mechanical heat, ventilating, air conditioning or
other air movement systems primarily control the movement of the
smoke. In these areas the movement of smoke is essentially the
same as the movement of any other pollutant.

SMOKE MOVEMENT IN THE HOT SMOKE ZONE
The volume of combustion products entrained in a rising plume in
the hot smoke zone is relatively small compared with the volume
of air in the total mixture. Consequently the smoke produced by
a fire will approximate the volume of air drawn into the rising
plume.

Smoke production is dependent upon the perimeter of the fire and
the effective height of the gas column above it.

SYSTEM TO CONTROL SMOKE IN A COLD SMOKE ZONE
In these systems the actual energy forces induced by the fire are
normally insignificant. The movement forces from the HVAC, wind,
and stack effects dominate the movement of the smoke. 

Essentially, this type of system would have exactly the same
effect on controlling either smoke or an unexpected release of a
toxic gas. 

Typical examples are stairwell pressurization systems and zone
pressurization systems. In these systems, the primary function of
the smoke control devices is to stop or drastically reduce the
leakage from the contaminated to the clear area. This is
accomplished by:

1. Plugging holes, which have air movement flowing in the
direction of the contaminated area.

2. The dilution of any smoke that may pass into the clear area
due to either steady or episodic inability's of the smoke control
system to completely stop the passage through openings.

3. The purging of spaces in clear areas where either a brief high
volume or a continuing low volume transfer of smoke takes place
into a limited volume space. e.g. a stairwell.

4. Assuring a constant movement of air from the clear area
towards the contaminated area to prevent a pressure stagnation
situation that can defeat the smoke control system. These types
of systems can be performance tested using either pressure
measuring devices or tracer chemicals. The tracer chemicals can
be visible as with smoke bombs or invisible as with sulfur
hexafluoride. When conducting such tests, it is suggested that
the leakage condition and the extent of dilution (if dilution is
an intended design factor) be checked when:
 o All openings are at the minimum expected level such as when
 all doors on a protected stairwell are closed. This will
 demonstrate the maximum build up of pressure.
 o All openings between the protected space and the rest of the
 building are closed except for the maximum opening between clear
 areas and the smallest potential fire zone. This will determine
 whether the smoke control system fans can overpower a small area
 of involvement and bring it to the same pressure as the
 protected area. This will create a stagnation condition in which
 smoke may travel into the protected area (stairwell, etc.) or
 result in pressurizing the fire area pushing smoke in other
 directions, such as into rooms off of a corridor.

The number or size of openings from the pressurized area to other
areas (clean or contaminated) is progressively increased. This
may require a series of tests. Eventually, any smoke control
system can be defeated eventually by providing enough relief
openings diverting the flow of air from the pressurized are to
another area not requiring protection. It is important for anyone
planning to use smoke control as a safeguard to understand the
system limitations.

A hot smoke zone is normally a condition that exists in the room
of fire origin.

In a hot smoke zone, the temperature of the smoke is high enough
so that the natural buoyancy of the body of smoke tends to lift
the smoke toward the ceiling.

The volume of combustion products entrained in a rising plume in
the hot smoke zone is relatively small, compared with the volume
of air in the total mixture.

In a cool smoke zone the movement of smoke is primarily
controlled by forces such as wind and stack effects, and the
mechanical heating, ventilating, air conditioning, or other
air-movement systems.

When it is colder outside than inside, building shafts such as
stairwells, elevator & dumbwaiter hoistways, mechanical shafts,
or mail chutes often have an upward movement of air.


THE INFORMATION HEREIN IS PROVIDED AS A GUIDE ONLY AND IS
INTENDED TO ASSIST YOU IN PREPARING FOR AN EXAM. IT IS NOT
INTENDED TO BE INCLUSIVE OF ALL INFORMATION THAT MAY BE ON AN
EXAM BUT RATHER IT IS INTENDED TO BE A SMALL SAMPLE OF THE KIND
OF MATERIAL THAT YOU MAY BE EXPECTED TO KNOW.

================================================================
NICET TEST DATES
================================================================

OREGON
------
OR1 PCC Sylvania, Portland;
Test 4/26/03. Postmark deadline 3/8/03.
Test 7/26/03. Postmark deadline 6/7/03.

OR2 Clackamas Community College, Oregon City;
Test 3/15/03. Postmark deadline 2/1/03.
Test 6/21/03. Postmark deadline 5/3/03.

WASHINGTON
----------
WA1 Bates Technical College, Tacoma;
Test 2/22/03. Postmark deadline 1/4/03.
Test 5/17/03. Postmark deadline 3/29/03.

WA2 Walla Walla Community College;
Test 2/22/03. Postmark deadline 1/4/03.
Test 5/17/03. Postmark deadline 3/29/03.

WA3 Spokane Community College;
Test 2/22/03. Postmark deadline 1/4/03.
Test 5/17/03. Postmark deadline 3/29/03.

These dates are from the NICET web site. For a complete list of
all test centers and test dates, visit
http://63.70.211.210/cfdocs/nicetschedule.cfm

================================================================
AFAA CLASS SCHEDULE
================================================================

------------------
February 4-6, 2003 Orlando, FL
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/ADV_Orlando_Feb2003.pdf

------------------
February 10-13, 2003 San Diego, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspection Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/INT_TI_CAFAA_SanDiego_February2003.pdf
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/INT_TI_CAFAA_SanDiego_February2003.pdf

------------------
February 11-13, 2003 Houston, TX - Co-sponsored by TFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/ADV_HOUSTON_Feb2003.pdf

------------------
February 18-20, 2003 Portland, OR - Co-sponsored by Oregon AFAA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Portland_Feb2003.pdf

------------------
February 19-21, 2003 Raleigh, NC 
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Raleigh_February2003.pdf

------------------
February 25-27, 2003 Honolulu, HI
Co-sponsored by SFPE Hawaii Chapter 
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Honolulu_Feb2003.pdf

------------------
March 11-13, 2003 Dallas, TX - Sponsored by NSCA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.nsca.org/nscaweb/content/expo2003/attendee/class.asp?
t=4&document=854&a=10&c=2

------------------
March 11-13, 2003 Deerfield Beach, FL (Ft. Lauderdale)
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Deerfield_March2003.pdf

------------------
March 17-20, 2003 Oakland, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspection Seminar.
More information will be available soon! 
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar.
More information will be available soon!

------------------
March 25-26, 2003 Las Vegas, NV - Sponsored by ISC West
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspection Seminar.
http://www.iscwest.com/App/homepage.cfm?linkid=7623&moduleid=331
&speakerdetails=speakerdetails&pram=15433&appname=180&date=03/25
/2003

------------------
April 7-9, 2003 New Orleans, LA - Sponsored by LA AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar.
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/ADV_NewOrleans_April2003.pdf

------------------
April 22-24, 2003 Richmond, VA - Sponsored by VA AFAA
------------------
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar.
More information will be available soon!

================================================================
COMMENTS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
================================================================

ET News is published weekly and if possible delivered on Sunday

ET News on the web http://etnews.org by http://metrodenver.org

----------------------------------------------------------------
The NICET acronym found herein refers to: http://www.nicet.org 
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATION IN ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES
----------------------------------------------------------------
The AFAA acronym found herein refers to: http://www.afaa.org 
AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM ASSOCIATION "We're celebrating 50 years!"
----------------------------------------------------------------
Some information may be found within this email message that is
reprinted with permission from one or more of the following;
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code(r), NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm
Code(r), and NFPA 101(r) Life Safety Code(r), Copyright(c) NFPA,
Quincy, MA 02269. This reprinted material is not the complete and
official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is
represented only by the standard in its entirety.
================================================================
                 Michael Baker & Associates Inc
503-657-8888 v | PO Box 737, Gladstone OR 97027 | 503-655-1014 f
----------------------------------------------------------------
ET News Copyright(c) 2003 by Michael B Baker all rights reserved
Send a link to a friend        
 

 

Home - Clients - Book Store - NICET Level I - NICET Level II - NICET Level III - NICET Level IV - Glossary - External Links - Licensing - Photographs - Employment - Disney Crud(SM) - Archives 2001 - Archives 2002 - Archives 2003 - Archives 2004 - Archives 2005 - Archives 2006 - Archives 2007 - Archives 2008 - Archives 2009 - Archives 2010 - Archives 2011 - Archives 2012 - Archives 2013 - Misc

ET NewsSM content copyright © 2017
by Michael B. Baker. All rights reserved.
ISSN 1554-074X

RSS Content
Some information may be found within this web site that is reprinted with permission from one or more of the following: NFPA 70 National Electrical Code®,NFPA 72® National Fire Alarm Code®, & NFPA 101® Life Safety Code®, Copyright© NFPA, Quincy, MA 02269.

This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.