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September 29, 2002

                           FPET NEWS
================================================================
    A NEWSLETTER FOR FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS
----------------------------------------------------------------
Issue No. 66                                           9-29-2002
================================================================

Contents
--------
- News
- FPET Journal
- NICET Test Dates
- AFAA Class Schedule
- Comments and Contacts

================================================================
NEWS
================================================================

My first month as an AFAA Instructor is behind me and I must say
that it's been enjoyable. In September I traveled to Baltimore,
Houston, and Cincinnati. The air travel wasn't nearly as bad as
I had anticipated. The TSA (Transportation Security
Administration) is doing a good job, in my opinion, of making
air travel safer. I only had one less than desirable incident
and I'm hopeful that they will continue to improve.

During those 3 or 4 times when I was pseudo-randomly selected
for a hand search prior to boarding, TSA employees were
professional, friendly, and they assisted me afterwards in
getting to the plane.
HINT: To see whether you have been pseudo-randomly selected for
a hand search, look at your boarding pass for the acronym SELPX.
That seems to be what cues the boarding agent to send you and
your carry-ons behind the partition for a closer inspection.

I've enjoyed meeting seminar attendees and have particularly
enjoyed learning from them about local codes, standards, and the
regional variations found within our trade. Thank you for your
support and for your participation during the seminars.

Next month I'm off to Spokane, Anchorage, and El Paso. I hope to
see you there or at another AFAA seminar coming soon to a city
near you!

----------------------------------------------------------------

AFAA is putting the final touches on its web-based training
program. The programs are broken up into bite-sized modules that
won't chew up a lot of your valuable time (or money). Look for
it in the next 60 days.

Let me know if you would like to attend an AFAA classroom seminar
in your home town mailto:mbbaker@attbi.com. Presently AFAA has
four classroom seminars to choose from:
1-day Inspection Testing and Maintenance
2-day Automatic Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems (Fundamentals)
3-day Intermediate Fire Alarm (NICET I & II)
3-day Advanced Fire Alarm (NICET III & IV)

A fifth seminar, Plan Review, is currently under development with
a target release date of 7/1/2003.

================================================================
FPET JOURNAL
================================================================

NICET Fire Alarm Systems Level II
33022* HEAT SENSING FIRE DETECTORS
----------------------------------

33022 is a Level II General Non-Core Work element.

The asterisk (*) following 33022 means crossover credit exists
in selected other fields/subfields for this work element. Read
information on crossover work elements in the Program Detail
Manual on pages 4 and 5. You won't receive the crossover credit
until you test in another qualified sub-field for the first time.

33022 DESCRIPTION
Understand the basic principles of operation of fixed temperature,
rate-of-rise, rate compensation, and combination heat sensing
fire detectors, their temperature classifications, listed spacing,
and the effect of thermal lag. Lay out a system of heat sensing
fire detectors of both the line and spot type. (NFPA 72, Fire
Alarm Signaling Systems, U.L. Fire Protection Equipment Directory)

33022 REFERENCES:
NFPA 72
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=7299

Fire Alarm Signaling Systems
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=fass94

UL Fire Protection Equipment Director
http://www.comm-2000.com/ULdirectories.asp?products=&service=&page=ULdirectories

33022 DESCRIPTION BREAKDOWN:
"Understand the basic principles of operation of fixed temperature, ..."
NFPA 72-1999 1-4 Heat Detector. A fire detector that detects
either abnormally high temperature or rate of temperature rise,
or both.

NFPA 72-1999 1-4 Fixed Temperature Detector. A device that
responds when its operating element becomes heated to a
predetermined level.

NFPA 72-1999 A-1-4 The difference between the operating
temperature of a fixed temperature device and the surrounding
air temperature is proportional to the rate at which the
temperature is rising. The rate is commonly referred to as
thermal lag. The air temperature is always higher than the
operating temperature of the device.
Typical examples of fixed temperature-sensing elements are as
follows.
(a) Bimetallic. A sensing element comprised of two metals having
different coefficients of thermal expansion arranged so that the
effect is deflection in one direction when heated and in the
opposite direction when cooled.
(b) Electrical Conductivity. A line-type or spot-type sensing
element whose resistance varies as a function of temperature.
(c) Fusible Alloy. A sensing element of a special composition
(eutectic) metal that melts rapidly at the rated temperature.
(d) Heat-Sensitive Cable. A line-type device whose sensing
element comprises, in one type, two current-carrying wires
separated by heat-sensitive insulation that softens at the rated
temperature, thus allowing the wires to make electrical contact.
In another type, a single wire is centered in a metallic tube,
and the intervening space is filled with a substance that, at a
critical temperature, becomes conductive, thus establishing
electrical contact between the tube and the wire.
(e) Liquid Expansion. A sensing element comprising a liquid
capable of marked expansion in volume in response to temperature
increase.


"... rate-of-rise, ..."
NFPA 72-1999 1-4 Rate-of-Rise Detector. A device that responds
when the temperature rises at a rate exceeding a predetermined
value.

NFPA 72-1999 A-1-4 Typical examples of rate-of-rise detectors
follow.
(a) Pneumatic Rate-of Rise Tubing. A line-type detector
comprising small-diameter tubing, usually copper, that is
installed on the ceiling or high on the walls throughout the
protected area. The tubing is terminated in a detector unit
containing diaphragms and associated contacts set to actuate at
a predetermined pressure. The system is sealed except for
calibrated vents that compensate for normal changes in
temperature.
(b) Spot-Type Pneumatic Rate-of-Rise Detector. A device
consisting of an air chamber, a diaphragm, contacts, and a
compensating vent in a single enclosure. The principle of
operation is the same as that described for pneumatic
rate-of-rise tubing.
(c) Electrical Conductivity-Type Rate-of-Rise Detector. A
line-type or spot-type sensing element whose resistance changes
due to a change in temperature. The rate of change of resistance
is monitored by associated control equipment, and an alarm is
initiated when the rate of temperature increase exceeds a preset
value.


"... rate compensation, ..."
NFPA 72-1999 1-4 Rate Compensation Detector. A device that
responds when the temperature of the air surrounding the device
reaches a predetermined level, regardless of the rate of
temperature rise.

NFPA 72-1999 A-1-4 A typical example is a spot-type detector
with a tubular casing of a metal that tends to expand lengthwise
as it is heated and an associated contact mechanism that closes
at a certain point in the elongation. A second metallic element
inside the tube exerts an opposing force on the contacts,
tending to hold them open. The forces are balanced in such a
way that, on a slow rate-of-temperature rise, there is more time
for heat to penetrate to the inner element, which inhibits
contact closure until the total device has been heated to its
rated temperature level. However, on a fast rate-of-temperature
rise, there is not as much time for heat to penetrate to the
inner element, which exerts less of an inhibiting effect so that
contact closure is achieved when the total device has been
heated to a lower temperature. This, in effect, compensates for
thermal lag.


"... and combination heat sensing fire detectors, ..."
NFPA 72-1999 Combination Detector. A device that either responds
to more than one of the fire phenomenon or employs more than one
operating principle to sense one of these phenomenon. Typical
examples are a combination of a heat detector with a smoke
detector or a combination rate-of-rise and fixed-temperature
heat detector.


"... their temperature classifications, ..."
NFPA 72-1999 2-2.1.1 Color Coding. Heat-sensing fire detectors
of the fixed-temperature or rate-compensated spot-type will be
classified as to the temperature of operation and marked with
the appropriate color code in accordance with NFPA 72-1999 Table
2-2.1.1.1.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.1.1.2 If the overall color of a heat-sensing
fire detector is the same as the color code marking required for
that detector, one of the following arrangements, applied in a
contrasting color and visible after installation, will be
employed:
(a) Ring on the surface of the detector
(b) Temperature rating in numerals at least 3/8 inch high

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.3 Temperature. Heat-sensing fire detectors
having fixed-temperature or rate-compensated elements will be
selected in accordance with NFPA 72-1999 Table 2-2.1.1.1 for the
maximum expected ceiling temperature that can be expected. The
temperature rating of the detector will be at least 20 degrees F
above the maximum expected temperature at the ceiling.


"... listed spacing, ..."
NFPA 72-1999 2-2.1.2 A heat-sensing fire detector integrally
mounted on a smoke detector will be listed or approved for not
less than 50-feet spacing.

NFPA 72-1999 A-2.2.1.2 The linear space rating is the maximum
allowable distance between heat detectors. The linear space
rating is also a measure of the heat detector response time to
a standard test fire where tested at the same distance. The
higher the rating, the faster the response time. NFPA 72-1999
recognizes only those heat detectors with ratings of 50 feet or
more.


"... and the effect of thermal lag."
FASS-94 Chapter 3 ... The air temperature at the time of alarm
is usually considerably higher than the rated temperature
(of the heat detector), because it takes time for the air to
raise the temperature of the operating element to its set point.
This condition is called thermal lag.


"... Lay out a system of heat sensing fire detectors of both the
line and spot type."
NFPA 72-1999 2-2.2.1 Spot-type heat-sensing fire detectors will
be located on the ceiling not less than 4 inches from the
sidewall or on the sidewalls between 4 inches and 12 inches from
the ceiling.

Exception 1: In the case of solid open joist construction,
detectors will be mounted at the bottom of the joists.

Exception 2: In the case of beam construction where beams are
less than 12 inches in depth and less than 8 feet on center,
detectors are permitted to be installed on the bottom of beams.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.2.2 Line-type heat detectors will be located
on the ceiling or on the sidewalls not more that 20 inches from
the ceiling.

Exception 1: In the case of solid open joist construction,
detectors will be mounted at the bottom of the joist.

Exception 2: In the case of beam construction where beams are
less than 12 inches in depth and less than 8 feet on center,
detectors are permitted to be installed on the bottom of beams.

Exception 3: If a line-type detector is used in an application
other than open area protection, the manufacturer's installation
instructions will be followed.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.1 Smooth Ceiling Spacing. One of the
following requirements apply:
(1) The distance between detectors will not exceed their listed
spacing, and there will be detectors within a distance of 1/2
the listed spacing, measured at a right angle, from all walls or
partitions extending to within 18 inches of the ceiling.

(2) All points on the ceiling will have a detector within a
distance equal to 0.7 times the listed spacing (0.7S). This is
useful in calculating locations in corridors or irregular areas.

NFPA 72-1999 A-2.2.4.1 [excerpted] In laying out detector
installations, designers work in terms of rectangles, as building
areas are generally rectangular in shape. The pattern of heat
spread from a fire source, however, is not rectangular in shape.
On a smooth ceiling, heat spreads out in all directions in an
ever-expanding circle. Thus, the coverage of a detector is not,
in fact, a square, but rather a circle whose radius is the
linear spacing multiplied by 0.7.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.2 Solid Joist Construction. The spacing of
heat detectors, where measured at right angles to the solid
joists, shall not exceed 50 percent of the smooth ceiling spacing
permitted under 2-2.4.1.1 and 2-2.4.1.2.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.3 Beam Construction. A ceiling shall be
treated as a smooth ceiling if the beams project no more than 4
inches below the ceiling. If the beams project more than 4 inches
below the ceiling, the spacing of spot-type heat detectors at
right angles to the direction of beam travel shall be not more
than two-thirds of the smooth ceiling spacing permitted under
2-2.4.1.1 and 2-2.4.1.2. If the beams project more than 18 inches
below the ceiling and are more than 8 feet on center, each bay
formed by the beams shall be treated as a separate area.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.4.1 (Sloping) Peaked. A row of detectors shall
first be spaced and located within 3 feet of the peak of the
ceiling, measured horizontally. The number and spacing of
additional detectors, if any, shall be based on the horizontal
projection of the ceiling in accordance with the type of ceiling
construction. See Figure A-2-2.4.4.1.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.4.2 (Sloping) Shed. Sloping ceilings having a
rise greater than 1 feet in 8 feet shall have a row of detectors
located on the ceiling within 3 feet of the high side of the
ceiling measured horizontally, spaced in accordance with the type
of ceiling construction. The remaining detectors, if any, shall
be located in the remaining area on the basis of the horizontal
projection of the ceiling.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.4.3 For a roof slope of less than 30 degrees,
all detectors shall be spaced using the height at the peak. For
a roof slope of greater than 30 degrees, the average slope height
shall be used for all detectors other than those located in the
peak.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.5.1 High Ceilings. On ceilings 10 feet to 30
feet high, heat detector linear spacing will be reduced in
accordance with NFPA 72-1999 Table 2-2.4.5.1, prior to any
additional reductions for beams, joists, or slope, where
applicable.
Exception 1: NFPA 72-1999 Table 2-2.4.5.1 does not apply to the
following detectors which rely on the integration effect:
(a) Line-type electrical conductivity detectors (See A-1-4)
(b) Pneumatic rate-of-rise tubing (See A-1-4)
In these cases, the manufacturer’s recommendations are to
be followed for appropriate alarm point and spacing.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.5.2 The minimum spacing of heat detectors
shall not be required to be less than 0.4 times the height of
the ceiling.


THE INFORMATION HEREIN IS PROVIDED AS A GUIDE ONLY AND IS
INTENDED TO ASSIST YOU IN PREPARING FOR AN EXAM. IT IS NOT
INTENDED TO BE INCLUSIVE OF ALL INFORMATION THAT MAY BE ON AN
EXAM BUT RATHER IT IS INTENDED TO BE A SMALL SAMPLE OF THE KIND
OF MATERIAL THAT YOU MAY BE EXPECTED TO KNOW.

================================================================
NICET TEST DATES
================================================================

OREGON
------
PCC Sylvania, Portland;
Test 11/16/02. Postmark deadline 9/28/02.
Test TBA/03. Postmark deadline TBA/03.

Clackamas Community College, Oregon City;
Test 11/16/02. Postmark deadline 9/28/02.
Test TBA/03. Postmark deadline TBA/03.

WASHINGTON
----------
Bates Technical College, Tacoma;
Test 12/14/02. Postmark deadline 10/26/02.
Test TBA/03. Postmark deadline TBA/03.

Walla Walla Community College;
Test 10/19/02. Postmark deadline 8/31/02.
Test TBA/03. Postmark deadline TBA/03.

Spokane Community College;
Test 11/16/02. Postmark deadline 9/28/02.
Test TBA/03. Postmark deadline TBA/03.

For a complete list of all test centers and test dates,
visit http://63.70.211.210/cfdocs/nicetschedule.cfm

================================================================
AFAA CLASS SCHEDULE 
================================================================

------------------
October 8-10, 2002 Spokane, WA
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_Spokane_Sept2002.pdf

------------------
October 7-10, 2002 Anaheim, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspections Seminar 10/7
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/ADV_TI_Anaheim_Oct2002.pdf
Advanced Fire Alarm Seminar 10/8-10
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/ADV_TI_Anaheim_Oct2002.pdf

------------------
October 14-16, 2002 Anchorage, AK
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar 10/14-16
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/INT_ANC_Oct2002.pdf

------------------
October 22-24, 2002 El Paso, TX - Co-sponsored by
Texas Fire Alarm Association
------------------
More info will be available soon! 

------------------
October 28-30, 2002 Brockton, MA - Sponsored by AFAA of New England
------------------
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar 10/28-30
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/IntFA_NE_Oct2002.pdf

------------------
November 4-7, 2002 Anaheim, CA - Sponsored by CAFAA
------------------
Fire Alarm System Testing and Inspections Seminar 11/4
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/INT_TI_CAFAA_ANAHEIM_November2002.pdf
Intermediate Fire Alarm Seminar 11/5-7
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/PDF/INT_TI_CAFAA_ANAHEIM_November2002.pdf

================================================================
COMMENTS AND CONTACTS
================================================================

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----------------------------------------------------------------
The NICET acronym found herein refers to: http://www.nicet.org
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATION IN ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES
----------------------------------------------------------------
The AFAA acronym found herein refers to:
THE AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM ASSOCIATION http://www.afaa.org
----------------------------------------------------------------
Some information may be found within this email message that is
reprinted with permission from one or more of the following;
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code(r), NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm
Code(r), and NFPA 101(r) Life Safety Code(r), Copyright(c)
National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA 02269. This
reprinted material is not the complete and official position of
the National Fire Protection Association on the referenced
subject, which is represented only by the standard in its
entirety. National Electrical Code(r), NEC(r), National Fire
Alarm Code(r), Life Safety Code(r), and 101(r) are registered
trademarks of the National Fire Protection Association, Inc.,
Quincy, MA 02269. http://www.nfpa.org
================================================================
                Michael Baker & Associates, Inc.
PO Box 737, Gladstone, OR 97027  [v]503-657-8888 [f]503-655-1014
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Some information may be found within this web site that is reprinted with permission from one or more of the following: NFPA 70 National Electrical Code®,NFPA 72® National Fire Alarm Code®, & NFPA 101® Life Safety Code®, Copyright© NFPA, Quincy, MA 02269.

This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.