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June 9, 2002

                            ET News
================================================================
                NEWS FOR ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS
----------------------------------------------------------------
Volume 2 Issue 23                                       6-9-2002
================================================================

Contents
--------
- News
- ET Journal
- Test Dates
- Class Schedule
- Administrivia

=================================================================
NEWS
=================================================================

For those of you attending CCC, this is finals week. I will be in the
classroom on Wednesday June 12 by 5 p.m. such that you may start your
final exam as soon as you arrive. Make sure that you have turned in all
7 of your projects, because I will submit your final grades on Wednesday
evening. As I understand it, classes will be offered during the Summer
term beginning the week of June 24, however, I will not be
participating.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

AFAA will be in Portland on June 20 and 21 for a long range planning
session. The AFAA Board of Directors
http://www.afaa.org/afaa/AFAA_BOD.asp are invited to the June 20
meeting. The June 21 meeting is open to all AFAA members. It will be
held at the Riverplace Hotel, 1510 SW Harbor Way, Portland OR 97201
http://www.riverplacehotel.com/ from 8 a.m. until 3 p.m. If you plan to
attend the June 21 meeting, please let Larry Neibauer know by sending
him an email message mailto:presafaa@aol.com.

=================================================================
ET JOURNAL
=================================================================

NICET Fire Alarm Systems Level II
33007* DETECTOR SPACING
---------------------------------

33007 is a Level II General Core Work element.

All Level II General Core Work Elements constitute a mandatory
requirement for achieving certification at Levels III and IV.

The asterisk (*) following 33007 indicates that crossover credit exists
in selected other fields/subfields for this work element. Read
information on crossover work elements on pages 4 and 5 of the Program
Detail Manual http://www.nicet.org/nicetmanuals/alarms.pdf.

33007 DESCRIPTION
Know the spacing and location rules for heat, smoke, and flame sensing
automatic fire detectors and spot, projected beam, and aspiration type
automatic fire detectors, including spacing on smooth ceilings, in
irregular shaped areas, high ceilings, ceilings with joists or beams,
and peaked ceilings. Determine the number of each type of detector to
protect a given building area. (NFPA 72, U.L. Fire Protection Equipment
Directory)

33007 REFERENCES:
NFPA 72
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=7299
UL Fire Protection Equipment Directory
http://www.comm-2000.com/ULdirectories.asp?products=&service=&page=ULdir
ectories#

33007 DESCRIPTION BREAKDOWN:
Remember that NFPA 72-1999 Chapter 2 describes initiating device
requirements:
2-2 Heat-Sensing Fire Detectors
2-3 Smoke-Sensing Fire Detectors
2-4 Radiant Energy-Sensing Fire Detectors

"Know the spacing and location rules for heat, ...
NFPA 72-1999 2-2.2.1 and Figure A-2.2.2.1 Spot-type heat detectors are
to be located outside the dead-air space, that is, on the ceiling not
less than 4 inches from the sidewall or on the sidewall between 4 inches
and 12 inches from the ceiling. In the case of solid open joist
construction, detectors are to be mounted on the bottom of the joists
and in the case of beam construction where beams are less than 12 inches
deep and less than 8 feet on center, detectors are permitted to be
installed on the bottom of beams.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.2.2 Line-type heat detectors are to be located on the
ceiling or on the sidewall not more that 20 inches from the ceiling. In
the case of solid open joist construction, detectors are to be mounted
at the bottom of the joist and in the case of beam construction where
beams are less than 12 inches deep and less than 8 feet on center,
detectors are permitted to be installed on the bottom of beams. Where a
line-type detector is used in an application other than open area
protection, the manufacturer’s installation instructions will be
followed.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.3 and A-2-2.3 Temperature. Heat detectors having
fixed-temperature or rate-compensated elements are to be selected in
accordance with Table 2-2.1.1.1 for the maximum ceiling temperature that
can be expected. 

NFPA 72-1999 A-2.2.4 Bear in mind that in addition to the special
requirements for heat detectors installed on ceilings with exposed
joists, reduced spacing may also be required due to other structural
characteristics of the protected area or possible drafts or other
conditions that could affect detector operation.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.1.1 Smooth Ceiling Spacing of Heat Detectors.
- Either the distance between heat detectors will not exceed their
listed spacing and there will be heat detectors within a distance of 1/2
listed spacing, measured at a right angle, from all walls or partitions
extending to within 18 inches of the ceiling; or
- All points on the ceiling will have a heat detector within a distance
equal to 0.7 times the listed spacing (0.7S). This is useful in
calculating locations in corridors or irregular areas.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.5.1 High Ceilings. On ceilings 10 feet to 30 feet
high, heat detector linear spacing will be reduced in accordance with
Table 2-2.4.5.1. Table 5-2.4.1.2 does not apply to the following
detectors, which rely on the integration effect:
(a) Line-type electrical conductivity detectors [See NFPA 72-1999 A-1-4]
(b) Pneumatic rate-of-rise tubing [See NFPA 72-1999 A-1-4]
(c) Series connected thermoelectric effect detectors [See NFPA 72-1999
A-1-4]
In these cases, the manufacturer’s recommendations will be followed for
appropriate alarm point and spacing.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.2 Solid Joist Construction. The spacing of heat
detectors where measured at right angles to the solid joists, will not
exceed 50 percent of the smooth ceiling spacing permitted under NFPA
72-1999 2-2.4.1 and 2-2.4.1.1.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.3 Beam Construction. A ceiling will be treated as a
smooth ceiling where the beams project no more than 4 inches below the
ceiling. The spacing of spot-type heat detectors at right angles to the
direction of beam travel will be not more than 2/3 of the smooth ceiling
spacing permitted in accordance with NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.1.1 and
2-2.4.1.2. Where the beams project more than 18 inches below the ceiling
and are more than 8 feet on center, each bay formed by the beams will be
treated as a separate area.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.4.1 and Figure A-2-2.4.4.1 Peaked Sloping Ceilings. A
row of heat detectors must first be spaced and located at or within 3
feet of the peak of the ceiling, measured horizontally. The number and
spacing of additional detectors, if any, will be based on the horizontal
projection of the ceiling in accordance with the type of ceiling
construction.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.4.2 and Figure A-2-2.4.4.2 Shed Sloping Ceilings.
Sloped ceilings having a rise greater than 1 foot in 8 feet will have a
row of detectors located on the ceiling within 3 feet of the high side
of the ceiling measured horizontally, spaced in accordance with the type
of construction. The remaining detectors, if any, will be located in the
remaining area on the basis of the horizontal projection of the ceiling.

NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.4.3 For a roof slope of less than 30 degrees, all
detectors will be spaced utilizing the height at the peak. For a roof
slope of greater than 30 degrees, the average slope height will be used
for all detectors other than those located in the peak.


"... smoke, ...
NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.1.1 The location and spacing of smoke detectors are
as a result of an evaluation based upon the guidelines detailed in NFPA
72-1999 and on engineering judgment. Some of the conditions to be
considered include:
(a) Ceiling shape and surface.
(b) Ceiling height.
(c) Configuration of contents in the area to be protected.
(d) Burning characteristics of the combustible materials present.
(e) Ventilation
(f) Ambient environment

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.1.2 Where the intent is to protect against a specific
hazard, the smoke detector(s) is(are) permitted to be installed closer
to the hazard in a position where the detector is more likely to
intercept the smoke.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.5.1.1 On smooth ceilings, spacing of 30 feet is
permitted to be used as a guide. In all cases, the manufacturer’s
documented instructions will be followed. Other spacing is permitted to
be used depending upon ceiling height, different conditions, or response
requirements. For the detection of flaming fires see NFPA 72-1999
Appendix B.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.5.1.2 For smooth ceilings, all points on the ceiling
will have a smoke detector within a distance equal to 0.7 times selected
spacing.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.6.1 Flat Ceilings. For ceiling heights of 12 feet or
lower and beams or solid joist depths of 1 foot or less, smooth ceiling
spacing running in the direction parallel to the beams or solid joists
will be used and ½ the smooth ceiling spacing will be used in the
direction perpendicular to the run of the beams or solid joists. For
beam depths over 1 foot, spot-type smoke detectors will be permitted to
be located either on the ceiling or on the bottom of the beams.
For beam depths exceeding 1 foot or for ceiling heights exceeding 12
feet, spot-type smoke detectors will be located on the ceiling in every
beam pocket.
For solid joists, smoke detectors are to be located on the bottom of the
joists.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.5.1 and A-2-3.5.1 In spaces served by air-handling
systems, detectors are not to be located where air from supply diffusers
could dilute smoke before it reaches the detectors.
Detectors should not be located in a direct airflow nor closer than 3
feet from an air supply diffuser or return air opening.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.5.2.1 and 2-3.6.1.1 In under-floor and above-ceiling
spaces that are used as HVAC plenums, smoke detectors are to be listed
for the anticipated environment. Smoke detector spacing and locations
are to be selected based upon anticipated airflow patterns and fire
type.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.6.6.2 Location. Smoke detectors are not to be located
directly in the airstream of supply registers.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.6.5, A-2-3.6.5 and Figure A-2-3.6.5 (a) & (b) High Rack
Storage. Where smoke detectors are installed to actuate a suppression
system, NFPA 13 applies. For the most effective detection of fire in
high rack storage areas, detectors should be located on the ceiling
above each aisle and at intermediate levels in the racks. This is
necessary to detect smoke that is trapped in the racks at an early stage
of fire development, when insufficient thermal energy is released to
carry the smoke to the ceiling. Earliest detection of smoke is achieved
by locating the intermediate level detectors adjacent to alternate
pallet sections. The detector manufacturer’s recommendations and
engineering judgment should be followed for specific installations.


"... and flame sensing automatic fire detectors...
NFPA 72-1999 2-4.3.1 Spacing Considerations for Flame Detectors. The
location and spacing of flame detectors will be the result of an
engineering evaluation that takes into consideration:
(a) The size of the fire that is to be detected
(b) The fuel involved
(c) The sensitivity of the detector
(d) The field of view of the detector
(e) The distance between the fire and the detector
(f) The radiant energy absorption of the atmosphere
(g) The presence of extraneous sources of radiant emissions
(h) The purpose of the detection system
(i) The response time required

NFPA 72-1999 A-2-4.3.2.1 Flame Detector Applications and Stability. The
types of application for which flame detectors are suitable are:
- High-ceiling, open-spaced buildings such as warehouses and aircraft
hangers.
- Outdoor or semi outdoor areas where winds or draughts can prevent
smoke from reaching a heat or smoke detector.
- Areas where rapidly developing flaming fires can occur, such as
aircraft hangers, petrochemical production, storage, and transfer areas,
natural gas installations, paint shops, or solvent areas.
- Areas needing high fire risk machinery or installations, often coupled
with an automatic gas extinguishing system.
- Environment that is unsuitable for other types of detectors.

Some extraneous sources of radiant emissions that have been identified
as interfering with the stability of flame detectors include:
- Sunlight
- Lightning
- X-rays
- Gamma rays
- Cosmic rays
- Ultraviolet radiation from arc welding
- Electromagnetic interference (EMI, RFI)
- Hot objects
- Artificial lighting.


"... and spot, ...


"... projected beam, ...
NFPA 72-1999 A-2-3.6.5 A projected beam-type detector is permitted to be
used in lieu of a single row of individual spot-type smoke detectors.


"... and aspiration type automatic fire detectors, ...
NFPA 72-1999 A-2-3.6.5 Sampling ports of an air sampling-type detector
are permitted to be located above each aisle to provide coverage
equivalent to the location of spot-type detectors. The manufacturer’s
recommendations and engineering judgment should be followed for the
specific installation.


"... including spacing on smooth ceilings, ...
NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.5.1.1 On smooth ceilings, spacing of 30 feet is
permitted to be used as a guide. In all cases, the manufacturer’s
documented instructions will be followed. Other spacing is permitted to
be used depending upon ceiling height, different conditions, or response
requirements. For the detection of flaming fires see NFPA 72-1999
Appendix B.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.5.1.2 For smooth ceilings, all points on the ceiling
will have a smoke detector within a distance equal to 0.7 times selected
spacing.


"... in irregular shaped areas, ...
NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.5.1.2 For smooth ceilings, all points on the ceiling
will have a smoke detector within a distance equal to 0.7 times selected
spacing.


"... high ceilings, ...
NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.6.1 Flat Ceilings. For ceiling heights of 12 feet or
lower and beams or solid joist depths of 1 foot or less, smooth ceiling
spacing running in the direction parallel to the beams or solid joists
will be used and ½ the smooth ceiling spacing will be used in the
direction perpendicular to the run of the beams or solid joists. For
beam depths over 1 foot, spot-type smoke detectors will be permitted to
be located either on the ceiling or on the bottom of the beams.
For beam depths exceeding 1 foot or for ceiling heights exceeding 12
feet, spot-type smoke detectors will be located on the ceiling in every
beam pocket.
For solid joists, smoke detectors are to be located on the bottom of the
joists.


"... ceilings with joists ...
NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.6 Solid Joist and Beam Construction. Solid joists
over 1 foot in depth are to be considered equivalent to beams for smoke
detector spacing guidelines.


"... or beams, ...
NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.6.1 Flat Ceilings. For ceiling heights of 12 feet or
lower and beams or solid joist depths of 1 foot or less, smooth ceiling
spacing running in the direction parallel to the beams or solid joists
will be used and ½ the smooth ceiling spacing will be used in the
direction perpendicular to the run of the beams or solid joists. For
beam depths over 1 foot, spot-type smoke detectors will be permitted to
be located either on the ceiling or on the bottom of the beams.
For beam depths exceeding 1 foot or for ceiling heights exceeding 12
feet, spot-type smoke detectors will be located on the ceiling in every
beam pocket.
For solid joists, smoke detectors are to be located on the bottom of the
joists.


"... and peaked ceilings."
NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.7 and Figure A-2-2.4.4.1 Peaked Ceilings. Smoke
detectors are to be spaced and located within 3 feet of the peak,
measured horizontally. The number and spacing of additional detectors,
if any, is to be based upon the horizontal projection of the ceiling.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.6.2 Sloped Ceilings. For beamed ceilings with beams
running parallel to or up the slope, the spacing for flat beamed
ceilings is to be used. The ceiling height is to be taken as the average
height over the slope. For slopes greater than 10 degrees, smoke
detectors located at 1/2 the spacing from the low end will are not
required. Spacing is to be measured along a horizontal projection of the
ceilings.
For beamed ceilings with beams running perpendicular to or across the
slope, spacing for flat beamed ceilings is to be used. The ceiling
height will be taken as the average height over the slope.
For solid joists, smoke detectors are to be located on the bottom of the
joists.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.8 and Figure A-2-2.4.4.2 Shed Ceilings. Smoke
detectors are to be spaced and located within 3 feet of the high side of
the ceiling, measured horizontally. The number and spacing of additional
smoke detectors, if any, is based upon the horizontal projection of the
ceiling.


"Determine the number of each type of detector to protect a given
building area."
NFPA 72-1999 2-2.4.1.1 Smooth Ceiling Spacing of Heat Detectors.
- Either the distance between heat detectors will not exceed their
listed spacing and there will be heat detectors within a distance of 1/2
listed spacing, measured at a right angle, from all walls or partitions
extending to within 18 inches of the ceiling; or
- All points on the ceiling will have a heat detector within a distance
equal to 0.7 times the listed spacing (0.7S). This is useful in
calculating locations in corridors or irregular areas.

NFPA 72-1999 2-3.4.5.1.2 For smooth ceilings, all points on the ceiling
will have a smoke detector within a distance equal to 0.7 times selected
spacing.


THE INFORMATION IN ET JOURNAL IS PROVIDED AS A GUIDE ONLY AND IS
INTENDED TO ASSIST YOU IN PREPARING FOR AN EXAM. IT IS NOT INTENDED TO
BE INCLUSIVE OF ALL INFORMATION THAT MAY BE ON AN EXAM BUT RATHER IT IS
INTENDED TO BE A SMALL SAMPLE OF THE KIND OF MATERIAL THAT YOU MAY BE
EXPECTED TO KNOW.

================================================================
NICET TEST DATES
================================================================

OREGON
------
PCC Sylvania, Portland;
Test 7/27/02. Postmark deadline 6/8/02.
Test 11/16/02. Postmark deadline 9/28/02.

Clackamas Community College, Oregon City;
Test 6/22/02. Postmark deadline 5/4/02.
Test 9/14/02. Postmark deadline 7/27/02.

WASHINGTON
----------
Bates Technical College, Tacoma;
Test 9/14/02. Postmark deadline 7/27/02.
Test 12/14/02. Postmark deadline 10/26/02.

Walla Walla Community College;
Test 7/25/02. Postmark deadline 6/8/02.
Test 10/19/02. Postmark deadline 8/31/02.

Spokane Community College;
Test 8/24/02. Postmark deadline 7/6/02.
Test 11/16/02. Postmark deadline 9/28/02.

For a complete list of all test centers and test dates, visit
http://63.70.211.210/cfdocs/nicetschedule.cfm

================================================================
CLASS SCHEDULE 
================================================================

OREGON
------
Clackamas Community College is sponsoring a 16-hour NICET Test
Preparation Seminar:

>> 7-13-2002 8 a.m. - 5 p.m. NICET Certification application process and
Fire Alarm Systems Level I Element Review.

>> 7-20-2002 8 a.m. - 5 p.m. Fire Alarm Systems Level II Element Review.

OUTLINE
-------
http://65.108.49.140/docs/outline.pdf

LOCATION
--------
Clackamas Community College
19600 South Molalla Avenue
Oregon City, OR 97045
http://www.clackamas.cc.or.us/maps/campus/

INSTRUCTOR
----------
Michael B. Baker SET
(503) 209-7345
mailto:mbbaker@etnews.org?subject=seminar

----------------------------------------------------------------

WASHINGTON
----------
Dean Reed and Associates is sponsoring a 16-hour NICET Test Preparation
Seminar:

>> 6-22-02 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. NICET Certification application process and
Fire Alarm Systems Level I Element Review.

>> 6-29-02 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Fire Alarm Systems Level II Element Review.

LOCATION
--------
Pinkerton Systems Integration
15404 53rd Ave South
Seattle, WA 98188
[Near South Center]

INSTRUCTOR
----------
Dean Reed CET
(206) 935-8950 voice/fax
(206) 953-8240 cell
mailto:bubba@oz.net

================================================================
ADMINISTRIVIA
================================================================

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Step-by-step guide to NICET Certification in Fire Alarm Systems
http://www.etnews.org/docs/stepbystep.pdf  [requires Acrobat Reader]

================================================================
Some information found in this email message is reprinted with
permission from one or more of the following; NFPA 70 National
Electrical Code(r), NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code(r), and NFPA 101(r)
Life Safety Code(r), Copyright(c) National Fire Protection Association,
Quincy, MA 02269. This reprinted material is not the complete and
official position of the National Fire Protection Association on the
referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in its
entirety. National Electrical Code(r), NEC(r), National Fire Alarm
Code(r), Life Safety Code(r), and 101(r) are registered trademarks of
the National Fire Protection Association, Inc., Quincy, MA 02269.

The NICET acronym belongs to:
National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies
1420 King Street || Alexandria, VA 22314-2794  || (888) 476-4238
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Some information may be found within this web site that is reprinted with permission from one or more of the following: NFPA 70 National Electrical Code®,NFPA 72® National Fire Alarm Code®, & NFPA 101® Life Safety Code®, Copyright© NFPA, Quincy, MA 02269.

This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.